Materials properties characterize the functionalities of almost any product. For many industrial applications the final material properties result from a number of process steps. Each of them allows the tailoring of the microstructure in order to achieve a desired functionality. Bridging the scales is an essential feature of the multi-scale analysis of components with local different material properties 1. In the case of multi-scale material modeling and in homogenization in general, one proceeds from detailed description of all material heterogeneities at the lower scale upward in order to obtain effective material properties accurately. Alternatively, in process modeling it is important to be able to step down to the scale of the real, heterogeneous material microstructure. The corresponding technique is known as localization method. This coupling between the scales corresponds to a serial, hand-shake type exchange of data (e.g. stresses, strains, etc.) passing up and down the scales.
Georg J. Schmitz and Ulrich Prahl. Integrative Computational Materials Engineering: Concepts and Applications of a Modular Simulation Platform. John Wiley & Sons, July 2012. ISBN 978-3-527-64611-1. ↩